Machine Learning

Machine Learning, a ferramenta que está levando o mundo a uma vida melhor

Machine Learning, braço da Inteligência Artificial, é um campo da Engenharia de Computação que consegue, a partir de um banco de dados, analisar e entender comportamentos, identificar padrões, prognosticar situações de risco, produzir insigths e agir baseado no aprendizado adquirido nessa análise…

Você alguma vez já se perguntou como a Inteligência Artificial está presente na sua vida?

Razoavelmente recente, a discussão sobre a área de atuação dos computadores no dia a dia da maioria da população mundial nem sempre é uma questão que chega a ser realmente percebida com clareza. Todos, diariamente, recebem mensagens sobre suas contas no banco, são bombardeados com publicidade em pequenas janelas ao acessarem o e-mail, fazem transações de compra e venda pela internet, mas não imaginam que por trás de cada mínima atividade, hoje absolutamente corriqueira, existe um sofisticado sistema de Inteligência Artificial manipulando bilhões de dados, ‘pensando’ sobre as possibilidades e tomando decisões muito rápidas sobre qual o próximo passo a seguir.

A ideia para algo assim surgiu há poucas décadas. O famoso matemático britânico Alan Turing, no início da década de 1950, acreditou que seria possível criar uma máquina que tivesse a capacidade de pensar, com a ajuda de algoritmos. O objetivo era desenvolver computadores e programas que tentassem simular o cérebro humano e como ele aprende.

A princípio, Turing era cético sobre a direção que um projeto dessa magnitude podia tomar, quando dizia que “nós podemos ver somente a uma curta distância à frente”, e arrematava: “mas nós podemos ver que pode ser feito”.

Apenas dois anos depois disso, Arthur Samuel, cientista norte-americano, criou um sistema capaz de jogar damas, que melhorava a performance a cada jogada, iniciando assim o conceito de Machine Learning ou ‘aprendizado de máquina’. E em 1956, em uma conferência no campus do Dartmouth College, o conceito da Inteligência Artificial foi finalmente cunhado e os cientistas que daquele evento participaram lideraram por décadas as pesquisas sobre IA.

Aprendizado da máquina

Em linguagem simplificada, pode-se dizer que Machine Learning, braço da Inteligência Artificial, é um campo da Engenharia de Computação que consegue, a partir de um banco de dados, analisar e entender comportamentos, identificar padrões, prognosticar situações de risco, produzir insigths e agir baseado no aprendizado adquirido nessa análise, através de algoritmos. O conceito é que os computadores podem aprender sem serem programados para isso, apenas utilizando a análise dos dados. É importante perceber a interatividade do ML, porque cada vez que ele é exposto a novos dados, ele de adapta automaticamente.

Aqui vale lembrar que o mundo, atualmente, produz uma quantidade inimaginável de dados por segundo, tanto em imagens, quanto em músicas, palavras, vídeos etc., e sem um sistema que pudesse gerenciar tudo isso de forma a transformar esse volume de informações em um aproveitamento real todo esse material não teria valor. Esse aspecto de aplicar cálculos sofisticados ao big data de forma automática, a cada vez que interage com ele, de maneira rápida e eficiente, é a grande inovação do Machine Learning nos últimos tempos, o que vai levar o conceito a um desenvolvimento ainda maior nos próximos anos. Por isso, as pesquisas nessa área não param de crescer.

Graças ao sistema de Machine Learning, existem hoje infindáveis mecanismos que garantem à população uma melhor qualidade de vida: o reconhecimento facial, amplamente utilizado pelas autoridades em todo o mundo para identificar ameaças, no combate ao terrorismo e ao crime organizado; na área médica, o ML é utilizado em diagnósticos, inclusive auxiliando em procedimentos importantíssimos, como por exemplo, detecção da probabilidade de câncer de mama com um ano de antecedência, possibilitando às mulheres o tratamento preventivo; ou na fabricação de carros que não precisam de motoristas para se locomover, evitando muitas mortes no trânsito.

E a lista continua: uma atividade que utiliza muito o Machine Learning é o mercado financeiro, que prevê em segundos os movimentos do mercado de ações. É importante perceber que o banco de dados desse segmento é imenso e seria impossível fazer essa previsão com humanos.

Outro exemplo é o de empresas de cartões de crédito. Imagine por minuto quantas transações de compras por cartões de crédito são realizadas no mundo todo? O ML analisa, através do histórico de atividades e seus padrões, quando uma compra pode ser considerada de risco e evita dessa forma a fraude.

A abrangência dessa ferramenta é tão grande, que através dela é possível para uma empresa de pequeno ou médio porte criar um sistema particular de atendimento e relacionamento com o cliente, gerenciar os estoques, prever necessidade de compras e muito mais, agilizando o pré e o pós-venda e a administração empresarial. Em grandes ou pequenas atividades, o Machine Learning é um instrumento que tem trazido cada vez mais possibilidades para o homem e esse mecanismo está só no início. Através de algoritmos é viável acreditar que ainda há muito mais para ser desenvolvido, ou seja, estamos apenas no começo do que pode se tornar uma das maiores formas de tecnologia que temos à nossa disposição.


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